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Lepidoptera > Geometroidea > Geometridae > Ennominae > Boarmiini > Biston

Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758) – Peppered Moth

Indian and global distribution:
records (based on images):
Identification:
Sexual, seasonal & individual variation:
Status, Habitat and Habits:
Adult moth observations that have been databased:
StateJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Himachal Pradesh
All states
Similiar species:
List of Biston known from India based on Kirti et al. (2019).
Biston bengaliaria (Guenee, 1858). India: Bengal.
Biston betularia coagnataria (Guenée, [1858]). India: Western Himalayas, Solan, Simla, Kharapathar, Sarahan, Himachal Pradesh.
Biston contectaria Walker, 1863. India: Canara, Karnataka.
Biston falcata (Warren, 1893). India: Sikkim.
Biston mediolata Jiang, Xue & Han, 201. India: Mizoram.
Biston panterianaria panterianaria (Bremer & Grey, 1853). India: Darjeeling, West Bengal.
Biston porphyria (Butler, 1889). India: Kangara district, Himachal Pradesh.
Biston regalis regalis (Moore, 1888). India: Darjeeling, West Bengal.
Biston sinuata Hampson, 1895. India: Sikkim.
Biston suppressaria suppressaria (Guenee, [1858]). India: Central India.
References:
  1. OD: Phalaena betularia Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1: 521; TL: [Europe]. Text at https://archive.org/details/carolilinnaeisys12linn/page/521/mode/1up?view=theater
  2. Hampson, G. F. 1895. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Moths, Vol.3. Taylor & Francis, London. Noctuidae (cont.) to Geometridae 546 p - 226 figs. Pg 246, # 3353. which lists species Biston cognataria from North America and NW Himalayas. Biston cognataria is now considered a junior synonym of B. betularia
  3. Han, H, Jiang, N., Xue, D. 2011. A review of Biston Leach, 1815 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) from China, with description of one new species. ZooKeys 139: 45-96. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.139.1308. Fig 17-18.
Notes: Numerous subspecies are listed from the Indian subcontinent
Biston betularia nepalensis Inoue, 1982 from Nepal
Biston betularia cognataria (Guenée, [1858])
The NW Himalaya subspecies is likely to be cognataria, but this needs further investigation through studying its phylogeny. 

 


Lepidoptera > Geometroidea > Geometridae > Ennominae > Boarmiini > Biston


Cite this page along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2022. Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758) – Peppered Moth. In Sondhi, S., Y. Sondhi, P. Roy and K. Kunte (Chief Editors). Moths of India, v. 3.30. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. http://www.mothsofindia.org/sp/356125/Biston-betularia
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